The smallest species of Kingfisher is the African Dwarf Kingfisher (Ispidina lecontei), whose averages weight is 10.4 g and length is 10 cm (4 inches). The straight, gently inclining burrow is normally 60â90 cm (24â35 in) long and ends in an enlarged chamber. This species is resident in areas where the climate is mild year-round, but must migrate after breeding from regions with prolonged freezing conditions in winter. They have restricted movement of their eyes within the eye sockets, instead using head movements to track prey. The subfamily is a comparatively recent split from the Halcyoninae, diversifying in the Old World as recently as the Miocene or Pliocene. The pied birds are so named for their black â¦ The Kofiau paradise kingfisher is restricted to the island of Kofiau off New Guinea. We're not going to quiz you on all of them, but do you think you can at least name the 40 we compiled for this quiz? In winter it is more coastal, often feeding in estuaries or harbours and along rocky seashores. Another Bornean tribe considers the banded kingfisher an omen bird, albeit generally a good omen..  The female is identical in appearance to the male except that her lower mandible is orange-red with a black tip. , "A molecular phylogeny of kingfishers (Alcedinidae) with insights into early biogeographic history", 10.1642/0004-8038(2006)123[487:AMPOKA]2.0.CO;2, "A phylogeny of kingfishers reveals an Indomalayan origin and elevated rates of diversification on oceanic islands", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kingfisher&oldid=989155578, Taxa named by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 10:44. These are the seven days on either side of the winter solstice when storms shall never again occur for them. The diving kingfisher primarily feeds on fish and as of now, there are five subspecies recognized. They live in tropical forested areas near water. It nests in burrows along earthen banks and feeds almost entirely on aquatic prey, diving to catch fish and crayfish with its heavy, straight bill. The common kingfisher's closest relative is the cerulean kingfisher that has white underparts and is found in parts of Indonesia.. , This species has a large range, with an estimated global extent of occurrence of 10 million square kilometres (3.8 million square miles). Most species of kingfisher are found in Old World in Australia, Asia and Africa. The kingfisher is a brightly-colored, broad-billed group of birds in the Alcedinidae family. you will find the scientific name and distribution information.  Once large enough, young birds will come to the burrow entrance to be fed. , There are seven subspecies differing in the hue of the upperparts and the intensity of the rufous colour of the underparts; size varies across the subspecies by up to 10%.  Common kingfishers have also been observed to catch lamprey. With a 20-inch wingspan, the species is about average sized for the family. The bill is usually longer and more compressed in species that hunt fish, and shorter and more broad in species that hunt prey off the ground. , The smallest species of kingfisher is the African dwarf kingfisher (Ispidina lecontei), which averages 10 cm (3.9 in) in length and between 9 and 12 g (0.32 and 0.42 oz) in weight. This kingfisher is a resident over much of its range, although some populations may make short distance movements. It nests in burrows along earthen banks and feeds almost entirely on aquatic prey, diving to catch fish and crayfish with its heavy, straight bill. Kingfishers are omnivores, but insect make up a large part of their diet. All kingfishers have large heads, long, sharp, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. The modern ornithologically restricted meaning of 'alcedinid kingfisher'. , The nest is in a burrow excavated by both birds of the pair in a low vertical riverbank, or sometimes a quarry or other cutting. It frequents scrubs and bushes with overhanging branches close to shallow open water in which it hunts. For these reasons, the species is evaluated as "least concern". , The kingfishers have a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring throughout the world's tropical and temperate regions. The short, rounded wings whirr rapidly, and a bird flying away shows an electric-blue "flash" down its back.  The name of the family was introduced (as Alcedia) by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. This species has the typical short-tailed, dumpy-bodied, large-headed, and long-billed kingfisher shape. The typical kingfishers (subfamily Alcedininae) are river dwellers, like the belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon), the only widespread North American species.  The shovel-billed kookaburra uses its massive, wide bill as a shovel to dig for worms in soft mud. The average daily energy intake was 73.5 kJ per chick (i.e., 1837 kJ per 25 days of the fledging period). In temperate regions, this kingfisher inhabits clear, slow-flowing streams and rivers, and lakes with well-vegetated banks. , In North Africa, Europe and Asia north of the Himalayas, this is the only small blue kingfisher. 'kingfisher bird' based on the intent of the name (i.e., 'bluefeather' interpreted as intended to mean 'kingfisher'.) They generally have short legs, although species that feed on the ground have longer tarsi. The largest overall is the Giant Kingfisher (Megaceryle maxima) with an average weight of 355 g â¦  It is divided into three subfamilies, the tree kingfishers (Halcyoninae), the river kingfishers (Alcedininae) and the water kingfishers (Cerylinae).  The oldest bird on record was 21 years. Kingfishers or Alcedinidae are a family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes. ... Name * Email * Website. Megaceryle alcyon The Belted Kingfisher is often first noticed by its wild rattling call as it flies over rivers or lakes. It is a common breeding species over much of its vast Eurasian range, but in North Africa it is mainly a winter visitor, although it is a scarce breeding resident in coastal Morocco and Tunisia. These habitats have also the highest quality of water, so the presence of this bird confirms the standard of the water. The length of the tunnels varies by species and location; nests in termitariums are necessarily much shorter than those dug into the earth, and nests in harder substrates are shorter than those in soft soil or sand. This is a common species of reeds and rank vegetation near slow moving water or ponds. , The common kingfisher typically lays two to ten glossy white eggs, which average 1.9 cm (0.75 in) in breadth, 2.2 cm (0.87 in) in length, and weigh about 4.3 g (0.15 oz), of which 5% is shell. It is depicted on the 1986 series Canadian $5 note. It is resident in much of its range, but migrates from areas where rivers freeze in winter. Global population trends have not been quantified, but populations appear to be stable so the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations).  In Central Europe, 97% of the diet was found to be composed of fish ranging in size from 2 to 10 cm with an average of 6.5 cm (body mass range from <0.1 g to >10 g, average 3 g). The common kingfisher is widely distributed over Europe, Asia, and North Africa, mainly south of 60°N. Itâs coloured blue-grey with a red-brown chest and easily seen along the river banks. In addition, they are capable of compensating for the refraction of water and reflection when hunting prey underwater, and are able to judge depth under water accurately. Nest-digging duties are shared between the genders  Sometimes, a pellet of bones, scales and other indigestible debris is coughed up. Individual species may specialise in a few items or take a wide variety of prey, and for species with large global distributions, different populations may have different diets. Parentheses indicate a new combination or change in status. They also have nictitating membranes that cover the eyes to protect them when they hit the water; the pied kingfisher has a bony plate which slides across the eye when it hits the water. The etymology of kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) is obscure; the term comes from "king's fisher", but why that name was applied is not known. Genus Alcedo. Modern taxonomy also refers to the winds and sea in naming kingfishers after a classical Greek myth. Six species are found in the New World. Common kingfishers are important members of ecosystems and good indicators of freshwater community health. Other species have much smaller ranges, particularly insular species which are endemic to single small islands. With its top-heavy physique, energetic flight, and piercing rattle, the Belted Kingfisher seems to have an air of self-importance as it patrols up and down rivers and shorelines. Summer floods can destroy nests or make fishing difficult, resulting in starvation of the brood. Forest and woodland kingfishers feed mostly on grasshoppers, spiders, mollusks, amphibians, worms, and even snakes. Kingfishers lay an average of 3 to 6 eggs, depending on the species, which are incubated â¦ Numerous species have adapted to human-modified habitats, particularly those adapted to woodlands, and may be found in cultivated and agricultural areas, as well as parks and gardens in towns and cities.. The pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) is a species of water kingfisher widely distributed across Africa and Asia. Pairs form in the autumn but each bird retains a separate territory, generally at least 1 km (0.62 mi) long, but up to 3.5 km (2.2 mi) and territories are not merged until the spring. The offspring of the kingfisher usually stay with the parents for 3â4 months. The species that hunt fish have longer and more compressed bills. In temperate regions, this kingfisher inhabits clear, slow-flowing streams and rivers, and lakes with well-vegetated banks. They are most famous for hunting and eating fish, and some species do specialise in catching fish, but other species take crustaceans, frogs and other amphibians, annelid worms, molluscs, insects, spiders, centipedes, reptiles (including snakes), and even birds and mammals.  Persecution by anglers and to provide feathers for fishing flies were common in earlier decades, but are now largely a thing of the past. Only a quarter of the young survive to breed the following year, but this is enough to maintain the population. Many species also eat crustaceans, amphibians, and reptiles. Species names The red-backed kingfisher has been observed hammering into the mud nests of fairy martins to feed on their nestlings. , Like all Coraciiformes, the kingfishers are cavity nesters as well as tree nesters, with most species nesting in holes dug in the ground. The Marquesan kingfisher of French Polynesia is listed as critically endangered due to a combination of habitat loss and degradation caused by introduced cattle, and possibly due to predation by introduced species.. return to Index Forest Kingfisher Description : Looks like the Sacred Kingfisher, except it has a white "flash" on its wing and a brighter underbelly Its tail is a strong blue, as is its head which has a â¦ Like other members of their order, they nest in cavities, usually tunnels dug into the natural or artificial banks in the ground. They are generally monogamous, although cooperative breeding has been observed in some species and is quite common in others, for example the laughing kookaburra, where helpers aid the dominant breeding pair in raising the young. . Reaching almost 40cm it was the most distinctive and common species we came across. As cavity nesters, some dig holes on the ground near water bodies, ditches, in tunnels, or in the holes of trees. , The food is mainly fish up to 12.5 cm (4.9 in) long, but the average size is 2.3 cm (0.91 in).  In most species, no overt differences between the sexes exist; when differences occur, they are quite small (less than 10%).. It has a green-blue neck stripe, white neck blaze and throat, rufous underparts, and a black bill with some red at the base. The largest and most atypical bill is that of the shovel-billed kookaburra, which is used to dig through the forest floor in search of prey. Kingfishers are generally shy birds, but in spite of this, they feature heavily in human culture, generally due to the large head supporting its powerful mouth, their bright plumage, or some species' interesting behavior.  It is about 16 centimetres (6.3 in) long with a wingspan of 25 cm (9.8 in), and weighs 34â46 grams (1.2â1.6 oz). While they are often associated with rivers and lakes, over half the world's species are found in forests and forested streams. The Collared Kingfisher feeds mainly on insects, small reptiles, small fish and crustaceans. The belted kingfisher is a large, conspicuous water kingfisher. The Australian kingfisher - the familiar, 'laughing' Kookaburra - is the heaviest of all the kingfisher species. The adult male of the western European subspecies, A. a. ispida has green-blue upperparts with pale azure-blue back and rump, a rufous patch by the bill base, and a rufous ear-patch. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22683027A89575948.en, "Effect of ditch living thing by process of original structure replacement by RC irrigation ditch", Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, "Longevity list of birds ringed in Europe", Photos, audio and video of common kingfisher, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Common_kingfisher&oldid=991335300, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 14:49. Europe and North America north of Mexico are very poorly represented, with only one common kingfisher (common kingfisher and belted kingfisher, respectively), and a couple of uncommon or very local species each: (ringed kingfisher and green kingfisher in the southwestern United States, pied kingfisher and white-throated kingfisher in southeastern Europe). It has a large population, including an estimated 160,000â320,000 individuals in Europe alone. The white-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) also known as the white-breasted kingfisher is a tree kingfisher, widely distributed in Asia from the Sinai east through the Indian subcontinent to the Philippines. Kingfishers feed on a wide variety of prey. You can see three species of Kingfishers along the river to Tortuguero. The flight of the kingfisher is fast, direct and usually low over water. Even tropical South America has only five species plus the wintering belted kingfisher. The legs and feet are bright red. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species â¦ Scientists believe there are more than 10,000 different species. The longest tunnels recorded are those of the giant kingfisher, which have been found to be 8.5 m (28 ft) long.  The familiar Australian kingfisher known as the laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae) is the heaviest species with females reaching nearly 500 grams (18 oz) in weight. Kingfisher Species Photo Gallery The Common Kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) are known by other names: the European Kingfisher, the Eurasian Kingfisher and the River Kingfisher. These holes are usually in earth banks on the sides of rivers, lakes or man-made ditches. Some species may nest in holes in trees, the earth clinging to the roots of an uprooted tree, or arboreal nests of termites (termitarium). In addition, special "halcyon days" were granted. The eyes of many birds have two foveae (the fovea is the area of the retina with the greatest density of light receptors), and a kingfisher can switch from the main central fovea to the auxiliary fovea when it enters water; a retinal streak of high receptor density which connects the two foveae allows the image to swing temporally as the bird drops onto the prey. The bird rises beak-first from the surface and flies back to its perch. They are also listed as a Schedule 1 species under the Wildlife and Countryside Act offering them additional protection.  The egg-shaped lens of the eye points towards the auxiliary fovea, enabling the bird to maintain visual acuity underwater. While kingfishers are usually thought to live near rivers and eat fish, many species live away from water and eat small invertebrates. With its top-heavy physique, energetic flight, and piercing rattle, the Belted Kingfisher seems to have an air of self-importance as it patrols up and down rivers and shorelines. The typical clutch size varies by species; some of the very large and very small species lay as few as two eggs per clutch, whereas others may lay 10 eggs, the typical is around three to six eggs. All kingfishers were formerly placed in one family, Alcedinidae, but recent research suggests that this should be divided into three subfamilies.  Because of the positions of the foveae, the kingfisher has monocular vision in air, and binocular vision in water. During the fledging period each chick consumed on average 334 g of fish, which resulted in an estimated daily food intake of 37% of the chick's body mass (average over the entire nestling period). A few species, principally insular forms, are threatened with extinction.  A few taxonomists elevate the three subfamilies to family status. Most kingfishers die of cold or lack of food, and a severe winter can kill a high percentage of the birds. , The common kingfisher is widely distributed over Europe, Asia, and North Africa, mainly south of 60Â°N. They died for this, but the other gods, in an act of compassion, made them into birds, thus restoring them to their original seaside habitat. , The courtship is initiated by the male chasing the female while calling continually, and later by ritual feeding, with copulation usually following. Kingfisher Species Photo Gallery The Malachite Kingfisher (Alcedo cristata) is a river kingfisher which is widely distributed in Africa south of the Sahara. It frequents scrubs and bushes with overhanging branches close to shallow open water in which â¦ During the initial excavations, the bird may fly at the chosen site with considerable force, and birds have injured themselves fatally while doing this. There is Amazon Kingfisher, the Ringed Kingfisher and the smallest kingfisher called the Green Kingfisher.  It can tolerate a certain degree of urbanisation, provided the water remains clean. Various kinds of kingfishers and human cultural artifacts are named after the couple, in reference to this metamorphosis myth: Not all the kingfishers are named in this way. Kingfishers can be split into three categories or subfamilies. Reaching some 30cm in length, the Giant Kingfisher is the world's largest member of the family, with only the Laughing Kookaburra (a non-aquatic kingfisher of Australia) coming close. Some kingfishers nest in arboreal termite nests. , A number of species are considered threatened by human activities and are in danger of extinction. The eggs hatch in 19â20 days, and the altricial young are in the nest for a further 24â25 days, often more. Some that moult late may suspend their moult during cold winter weather. Forests and forested streams adult birds survive from one breeding season to the common kingfisher season the! That it 's interesting to think they all share a common species we came across whistle repeated... Largely resident except for seasonal climate related movements of kingfisher species name to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the Indomalayan around... Held near its tail and beaten against the perch several times 10th of.. 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