The Chilean revolutionary experiment met its end on September 11th, 1973, when counterrevolutionary forces coalesced in a military coup that toppled the longest standing democracy on the South American continent. Edited by Elizabeth Quay Hutchinson, Thomas Miller Klublock, and Nara B. Milanich, 393-99. Raul Oliva, one of the companeros who helped to establish the first successful union at the mill, recalled that “We only had a small group of people here, but they were all young people, all fighters… It … Jul 4, 1811. Print. The U.S. should furthermore, “maintain close relations with friendly military leaders in the hemisphere,” (384). In Edy Kaufman’s work on the Chilean revolution and its downfall, he suggests that the failure of the Allende regime was due less to the extremists of the political right and left, and more to the failure of political compromise. In The Chile Reader: History, Culture, Politics. In Chile, the elites wanted no part of the democratic road to socialism which Allende promised during the election and they were going to do whatever it took to hold on to the socio-economic superior position in society. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books, 2013. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books, 2013. The years 1823–30 were troubled by an internal political split between the oligarchy and the army; 30 successive governments held office, and a variety of political experiments were tried. Icarus Films, 2004. The Haitian Revolution was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection that took place in the former French colony of Saint Domingue from 1791 until 1804. He joined resistance forces there, and he rallied troops to invade Venezuela and drive out the Spanish. It furthermore expresses how difficult the workers were to control and how hard it was to deny them the liberación they passionately sought. Our billionaires should be very worried | Will Bunch. Despite the colony’s isolation, its inhabitants at the start of the 19th century were affected by developments elsewhere. These include interviews with workers and women in Chile, with land-takers and land owners, memos from Kissinger on Chile and his later commentary in a memoir, and words from Allende himself. Allende died with his revolution, as did many others after Augosto Pinochet’s military dictatorship seized power. “Chile: The Fall of Salvador Allende.” In Years of Upheaval, 374-413. While the peasants saw the takeover as reclaiming the land that had been illegally taken from their native ancestors by invaders, the landowners considered Rucalán their property taken by violent delinquents. Like any revolution, the Chilean Revolution requires the success of similar movements in other areas. At the end of the collection, Kenneth Medhurst notes that Chile’s “moment of truth,” has not yet come, saying that the fate of La Vía Chilena, “seems to lie between the Jacobin call to ‘save the revolution, threatened by external and internal enemies’, the prelude to Leninism and the dictatorship of the proletariat; or a constitutional acceptance of the limitations on the power of the government,” (194). Allende also discusses the nationalization of foreign owned corporations, characterizing this as the right of Chile to its own resources, an historic wrong being righted with respect for international law. However, should Chile act as a “model” for the rest of Latin America and the world, the effect would be “insidious,” (383). In Chile the initial move toward independence was made on September 18, 1810, when a cabildo abierto (open town meeting) in Santiago, attended by representatives of privileged groups whose vaguely defined objectives included a change in administration, accepted the resignation of the President-Governor and in his place elected a junta composed of local leaders. Revolution is an international task which can only be solved on an international level - it does not recognise continental frontiers. Vicuña, Francisco Orrego, ed. Translated by Ben Brewster, Peter Belgan, Jean Franco, and Alison MacEwan. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1989. In his work, he neither lionizes nor demonizes Allende, Nixon, Kissinger, or any of the actors in the fall of the Chilean revolution. U.S. involvement was limited to supporting groups advocating democracy, he says. The revolution in Chile saw the first democratic election of a Marxist leader in the Western Hemisphere, an election which inspired hope for some and spelled disaster for others. The Carreras continued their spirited agitation for independence in Buenos Aires and the United States. Reinforcement of these traditional notions coupled with media campaigns associating communism with the destruction of morals and society convinced Chile’s women that the survival of the family was contingent on the survival of capitalism. The Revolution of 1851 was an attempt to overthrow the conservative government by Chilean liberals. There O’Higgins won the support of José de San Martín, who, with the support of the revolutionary government in Buenos Aires, was raising an army to free the southern portion of the continent by first liberating Chile and then attacking Peru from the sea. Two of the Carrera brothers had been executed in Mendoza, Argentina, in 1818, and José Miguel Carrera suffered the same fate in the same city in 1821. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books, 2013. Kissinger, Henry A. In these documents, we see the undemocratic elements of the socialist revolution as there were leftist groups using force to bring forth revolution in the country. Coordinating the attack from an army communications facility on Successful crisis management was critical because the extreme crisis jeopardized the reforms that the Chilean government had implemented beginning in 1974… Following this, there are the sources that demonstrate the factors working against Allende’s revolution and the causes for counterrevolution. Trade restrictions were relaxed, steps were taken toward the eventual abolition of slavery, a newspaper was established to publicize the beliefs of the patriots, and education was promoted, including the founding of the National Institute. I have also included Salvador Allende (2004) because this film covers the election of Salvador Allende and exhibits his and the United States’ ambitions for Chile in those years. To the political chaos were added financial and economic disorder and an increase in lawlessness that tended to strengthen the authoritarian members of the oligarchy. Chile: The Balanced View. Toussaint L'Overture was the individual leader. Hutchison, Elizabeth Quay, Thomas Miller Klubock, and Nara B. Milanich, eds. The first image shows young people painting murals in support of Allende. This is a pamphlet from the Christian Democrat Party discussing agrarian reform during this time. His analysis of internal factors causing the violent end of the revolution suggests that responsibility falls more to the political moderates in the country who were unsuccessful in asserting a middle ground among the political clamor. Memorandum, “Memorandum for the President,” November 5, 1970. He furthermore claims that the influence of international powers, particularly in this case, the U.S., the Soviet Union, and Cuba, was no less important for the Chilean situation, it being a “Third World” nation, dependent on international aid and trade of its few main exports (39). This book (in the chapter cited here) contains a plethora of relevant primary sources about the Chilean revolution and counterrevolution from many different perspectives of involvement. Falcoff furthermore suggests that a military coup was not what the United States wanted. San Martin's forces drove Spanish troops out of Chile completely, and proclaimed independence from Spain and Peru. Pinochet was successful in stabilizing the economy, bringing inflation under control, and growing the economy at a stable rate. | Disclaimer Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books, 2013. Print. Successful anti-government uprisings in September 1851 in various cities except the capital Santiago left the country divided and a civil war developed. Chile’s revolution is especially notable because revolutionaries worked within the existing governmental institutions and took power democratically. Davis, Nathaniel. Print. In the 1960s, the Christian Democrats held power under the president Eduardo Frei and enacted a number of reform policies to improve standards of living and inequality in Chile. Sep 16, 1810. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTCVGdq7BAo. Harmer, Tanya. These documents on the “revolution from below” reflect an important dimension of the Chilean revolution. These conflicts occurred between Allende and the working class of Chile, who saw the democratic processes as not working fast enough to suit their needs. Edited by Elizabeth Quay Hutchinson, Thomas Miller Klublock, and Nara B. Milanich, 406-09. https://www.marxists.org/archive/allende/1972/december/04.htm. Despite evidence to the contrary, he asserts that, “our government had nothing to do with his overthrow and no involvement with the plotters,” of the military coup (374). Rather, he was a skilled parliamentarian politician committed to aiding the poor and under-privileged, who could never abandon his romantic admiration for those, like Castro and Guevara, who had waged a successful armed revolution,” (xiii). In The Chile Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Labor strikes and economic disarray made basic necessities difficult to find. In this speech before the UN, Allende explains the democratic revolution taking place in his country and the economic pressures from abroad that are causing it harm. According to Kissinger’s memo, President Nixon ordered that U.S. assume a “correct but cool” diplomatic posture towards Chile and that the U.S. will pressure the Allende government to limit its capability to carry out policies “contrary to U.S. and hemisphere interests,” (383). The start of the Mexican Revolution The revolution started when a man named Miguel Hidalgo issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish . Then there are sources describing Allende’s and the socialists’ goals for democratic revolution in Chile. Updated: October 27, 2019 - 1:01 PM . The sources in this chapter offer insight into the factors that lead to Allende’s election and the causes for his revolution’s failure. Accessed November 19, 2015. However, the embers of civil strife were also fanned. This is an interview with a Chilean woman who lead a conservative feminist group (Poder Feminino) during the Allende years describing the events of the women’s “March of the Empty Pots” (December 1971). Rival political factions were eliminated in 1829 when authoritarians, with the help of a part of the army, were able to install a junta (collegial government) that nominated José Tomás de Ovalle as provisory president. The speakers in this interview recount both the peasant takeover of the Rucalán holding and the attempt to reclaim the land by the owners. The Revolution of 1851 (or Civil War of 1851) was an attempt by Chilean liberals to overthrow the conservative government of president Manuel Montt and repeal the Chilean Constitution of 1833. The collection is broken into four parts: political history, U.S. economic interventions, Allende’s economic goals, and responses from U.S. government officials on intervention. It was leaded by Antonio Berney (french), Antonio Gramusset (french), and Jose Antonio Rojas (chilean). Observers and analysts, like the participants in the events themselves, tend to either lionize or demonize Allende, Nixon, Kissinger, and the rest. Power, Margaret MacDonald. According to the footnotes of the provider of the source, she misrepresents facts about the economy that she says caused her disdain for the president. Lawson, Chappell. Thus in this book, the author seeks to bring focus to both the internal and external factors at play, rather than emphasize one more than the other as different observers have done. Kissinger further suggests that Salvador Allende was his own undoing in that he created political instability through radical socialism that he himself could not control. Kissinger, Henry A. They planned to changed Chile into a republic, stablish a Senate, abolish slavery and redistribute the country's land equally among all the people. For a while, the promise seemed to be working. (ii) As the introduction of tractors and other ‘Western’ style technology was not as successful as first hoped, Alternative, ‘Appropriate Technology’ has been introduced which is suited to the local people’s wealth, skills and knowledge, for example low cost irrigation schemes etc.What were the successes of the Green Revolution? The Creoles remained bitterly divided between O’Higgins and the Carreras. In a chapter in his memoir, Years of Upheaval, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger addresses the question of the level to which the United States was involved in the counterrevolution that brought down Allende’s government in 1973. 1966. The Chilean Revolution: Conversations with Allende. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985. The balanced nature of the author’s study of the revolution and counterrevolution is best captured by his own words: “Allende was neither an innocent social-democrat overthrown by fascist thugs and the CIA, nor a Marxist revolutionary who manipulated Chile’s democratic institutions in order to set the stage for a violent Communist seizure of power. Memorandum, “National Security Decision Memorandum 93,” November 9, 1970. Accessed November 1, 2015. The enslaved Africans led the revolution. When the military attacked the presidential palace, Salvador Allende gave a final speech broadcasted over the radio just before his death. In The Chile Reader: History, Culture, Politics. The authors of the pamphlet contrast the productive capacity of Chile through figures on unused land and jobless poor with the current unequal situation. Everywhere, in the wildcat strikes in the United States and West Germany, the factory occupations in France, and in civil insurrections in the USSR, the foundations for … Accessed November 1, 2015. They argue that Chilean conservatives allied with US interests were unsuccessful in defeating Allende through elections, economic sabotage or CIA covert aid, so they resorted to the only remaining option - military intervention. Rivalries developed between federalists and centralizers and between authoritarians and liberals. The purpose of this study guide on the Chilean revolution and counterrevolutionary movements in the 1970s was to explore a lesser known but no less important example of revolution in the 20th century. Print. Francisco Orrego Vicuña also gives a good analysis of the problems with the nationalization of copper. The authors portray land reform as a means to improve living conditions of the peasant classes and improve the welfare of the entire nation without hurting the land owning classes. The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende. It is important not to ignore this element as it lead to later problems for the Allende government: “The tensions between the phased and controlled revolution from above and the more spontaneous and locally informed revolution from below were never resolved, constituting a fatal flaw in the Chilean revolutionary process,” (348). Landsberger, Henry A., and Tim McDaniel. This blockade consists of a international lowering of copper prices to retaliate against Chile for nationalizing its copper industry, a credit blockade, inability to purchase needed U.S. machinery, and the halting of economic aid much needed and previously received. Although the author analyzes the external pressures that caused strife in Chile during the revolutionary years, he also acknowledges the serious impact of Allende’s polarizing policies and the destabilizing effect of their too rapid application to Chilean society. He analyzes these political trends and suggests that Allende’s election (in which he captured only a little over a third of the popular vote) did not reflect the true sentiments of the electorate. Anti-government demonstrators are sprayed by a police water cannon during a protest in Santiago, Chile, on Saturday.Chile has been facing days of unrest, triggered by a relatively … Although Harmer acknowledges that the failure of democratic revolution in Chile was not solely due to foreign intervention, “this book deals with the impact external actors had on Chilean domestic policies,” (5). New York, NY: Praeger Publishers, 1988. Power answers the questions of how and why conservative women’s groups came to be radicalized during this time. Santiago, Chile: University of Chile Institute of International Studies, 1975. The collection begins with an assessment of the historical background of Chile, followed by essays on the creation of a welfare state, the politicization of the people, “problems and prospects” of Allende’s economic reform, and the significance of the Chilean revolution to other emerging socialist nations. Pittsburgh, PA: The University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977. The Haitain Revolution started when white masters began to beat and mistreat the slaves. Nixon and Kissinger’s goals for intervention were not driven by economic or corporate interests, but more by U.S. political interests. Henry Landsberger and Tim McDaniel, authors of this article, theorize that at the time of revolution, the disorganized working class in Chile was too quickly mobilized, thereby undermining the democratic socialist revolution attempted by Allende. While there was need for reform and restructuring of the government and income distribution, La Vía Chilena al Socialismo was not what the people wanted (20). In The Chile Reader: History, Culture, Politics. “Las Últimas Palabras de Salvador Allende.” Radio broadcast, September 11, 1973. The third image of newspapers speculating the outcome of the election shows how uncertain and how close the election was in Chile. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 1972. The second photo demonstrates the fears the right and its supporters held concerning Allende and the possible election of a Marxist. The example of U.S. attempts at intervention are thus more an example of the limits of international hegemony rather than the strength of a foreign power’s influence. -The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition to the south 1535-36 called them Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1982. Although Allende was democratically elected and popularly supported, Kissinger associates Allende’s Chile with Mao’s China and the Soviet Union, claiming that Allende sought the eradication of political plurality and democracy in Chile. Furthermore, although the Chilean working class was politically “mature” relative to other underdeveloped nations, the authors suggest that the working class in Chile was not united behind any single set of ideologies, let alone a revolutionary ideology, as approximately one quarter of unions were lead by Christian Democrat supporters and less than half by Marxists (510). Kissinger, Henry A. It is a balanced account that offers, by its author’s own admission, no single explanation for the failure of the democratic revolution and subsequent coup. There had already been one attempt. This source provides a helpful timeline of the events of the revolution and counterrevolution in Chile from 1970-1973. In addition to external causes for counterrevolution, this chapter importantly offers insight into the internal dimension as well: “The tensions between the phased and controlled revolution from above and the more spontaneous and locally informed revolution from below were never resolved, constituting a fatal flaw in the Chilean revolutionary process,” (348). The most significant of those developments were the winning of independence by the 13 Anglo-American colonies and by Haiti, the French Revolution, and the inability of Spain to defend its system in America, as indicated by the British invasion of the La Plata region and increased contraband trade on the part of British and U.S. citizens. Youtube.com. Edited by Elizabeth Quay Hutchinson, Thomas Miller Klublock, and Nara B. Milanich, 386-92. Solar makes up almost 10% of Chile’s energy output and has contributed to lower the risks of energy crises. “Right-wing women and Chilean politics: 1964-1973” Doctoral thesis, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1997. O’Higgins was proclaimed supreme director of Chile, although the act of declaring Chile’s independence was not taken until a year later (February 12, 1818), on the first anniversary of Chacabuco, and the decisive defeat of Spain on the Chilean mainland (Spain held the island of Chiloé until 1826) did not come until the Battle of Maipú, on April 5, 1818. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011. Landsberger and McDaniel conclude that, “political change requires some degree of control over mobilization,” as it is a double edged sword for those leading the people in a revolution (506). In his interpretation of the Church Report (a Congressional investigation of U.S. intervention in Chile), he claims that the U.S. did not attempt to create conditions for a junta, but rather, “a rematch, in which the political forces of the country would more nearly reflect its actual currents of opinion,” (11). This source furthermore contributes to the theory that hypermoblization of revolutionary forces destabilized the democratic revolutionary effort by the Allende administration. Rumors of a military coup against the socialist Chilean president, Salvador Allende, had been swirling for months. Accessed November 1, 2015. Summarize the French revolution, include cause and effect, and the rise of Napoleon. Guzmán, Patricio, dir. This is a second memo form Kissinger to the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and to the head of the CIA on a meeting to decide what to do about Chile just after the election of Salvador Allende. “Speech to the United Nations.” Speech presented at United Nations General Assembly, New York, NY, December 4, 1972. “Hypermobilization in Chile, 1970-1973.” World Politics 28, no. The author of this dissertation, Margaret Power, analyzes the role of conservative women in 1960s Chile, in opposing the Allende government, and in the Chilean counterrevolution in 1973. According to the authors, hypermobilization occurs when a social group is mobilized by political forces and it seeks to fulfill all of its needs as quickly as possible, but cannot because of the lack of resources, causing conflict. The result was violent protests by women’s groups, demanding Allende’s removal by any means. Guzmán, Patricio, dir. What impact did the French Revolution and Napoleon have on Simon Bolivar and Venezuela's independence movement? http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/political-science/17-508-the-rise-and-fall-of-democracy-regime-change-spring-2002/study-materials/chile_timeline.pdf. The first sources in this chapter characterize the period of reform in the 1960s that preceded Allende’s election. The sources gathered here, from both the past and present, demonstrate no neutral feelings about Compañero Presidente Allende and his revolution. Debray, a journalist and academic who fought alongside Che Guevara in Bolivia before his death, writes a glowing assessment of the Allende regime in Chile in a long introduction to two interviews with Allende on the first year of his presidency. In this book, political scholar Paul E. Sigmund analyzes Allende, his predecessor, and his successor. Edited by Elizabeth Quay Hutchinson, Thomas Miller Klublock, and Nara B. Milanich, 406-09. I have listed selected documents from The Chile Reader below. Durham, NC: Duke University Press Books, 2013. Guzmán, Patricio, dir. It is a useful historical resource giving several important dates in the revolutionary period. Importantly, he notes that Allende was democratically elected and therefore the legitimate leader of Chile in the eyes of the nation and the world. “Chile Timeline.” MIT Open Courseware. Sigmund, Paul E. The Overthrow of Allende and the Politics of Chile, 1964-1976. He emphasizes that historians studying Chile’s revolution must not overestimate the role the U.S. played in the counterrevolution; while the U.S. covertly attacked Allende’s government in no small way, forces against Allende had the power to undermine and overthrow him regardless of American influences. He asserts that Allende has a “profound anti-U.S. bias” and will seek to eliminate U.S. influence in Latin America and strengthen the influence of communist states there. Accessed November 1, 2015. The struggle of Chile for democratic socialist revolution under the shadow of U.S. hegemony and interventionism in the Western Hemisphere epitomized the struggle of Latin America in general during the Cold War. The guide begins with selected primary sources capturing various perspectives of the revolution, both internal and external. Revolution (1968) One of Lennon’s most divisive songs, Revolution was recorded for the White Album during the tumultuous summer of 1968 and spawned several different versions. In 1817 liberal reforms were introduced in Chile which reduces the … ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. Actual power, however, was held by Diego Portales, who, as either a cabinet member or a private citizen, in fact ruled as a virtual dictator. Accessed November 10, 2015. This leader, President Salvador Allende, promised socialism “La vía chilena” (the Chilean way): “political, social, and economic transformation legally [done], through established Chilean institutions; and he would achieve the transition without violence, without the dictatorship of the proletariat, and without the millions of deaths experienced elsewhere when the road to socialism was traversed by force,” (Davis iv). Will Bunch | @will_bunch | firstname.lastname@example.org. Allende survived the aerial attack but then apparently shot himself to death as troops stormed the burning palace, reportedly using an automatic rifle given to him as a gift by Cuban di… Debray, Régis and Salvador Allende Gossens. The contributors include historians, academics, political commentators, and government officials. Surrounding the palace, chilean army troops and tanks were poised for ground assault. He says that he founded the Chilean Socialist party because the people needed a country founded on Marxist ideas, but with a “broader outlook” that would be independent, designed to meet Chile’s needs and not follow the prescriptions of international organizers, like the Soviet Union and Cuba (62). The films focus primarily on Chile’s bourgeoisie as the main source of opposition to the revolution, but also acknowledges the external actors at play, such as the C.I.A. 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