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what were the main ideas of the second great awakening?

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1859: Boston was the center of Unitarian activity in America, and the Brattle Street Church was a prominent Unitarian venue. The social impact of the Second Great Awakening may be gauged by reviewing several main thrusts of the scholarly literature. The most significant revivalist in this area was the Presbyterian minister Charles Grandison Finney (1792–1875) who was ordained in 1823. Society and religion in the New England colonies . As early as the middle of the eighteenth century, a number of clergymen in New England preached what was essentially Unitarianism. The Second Great Awakening expressed Arminian theology, by which every person could be saved through revivals, repentance, and conversion. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. The main ideas are how Gatsby fall in love with daisiy and nick narrates about his life. It gave them people agency in their own religious lives that Calvinism had denied them. An introduction to the Second Great Awakening - the first in my video series on Antebellum Reform Movements The Great Awakening was sparked by the tour of an English evangelical minister named George Whitefield. No longer were individuals converting alone. The Middle colonies. Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening not only renewed America’s religious intensity but it also initiated many of the reform movements that would later seize the country, and some can even still be seen today. "Black Harry" Hosier (1750–1906), the first African-American Methodist preacher and a fabled orator despite being illiterate, was a crossover success in both black and white revivals. Historians studying the Second Great Awakening in the upper south and the frontier should not exclusively treat mechanisms of revival like camp meetings, or circuit riders, but remember that revivals were pipelines into regular church membership. Besides producing many mainline Protestant converts, especially in nonconformist sects, the area spawned a number of innovative religious movements, all founded by laypeople during the early nineteenth century. The change in women’s roles came mostly from their participation in increasingly formalized missionary and reform societies. T… In the East: Thought the Christian message (Second Great Awakening) was a promise of freedom The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation. In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, Christ was gradually “feminized” in this period to stress his humility and forgiveness. Settlers in thinly populated areas would gather at the camp meeting for fellowship. William Miller and his followers, called Millerites, believed that the Second Coming would occur on October 22, 1844. Churches were established in New York, Baltimore, Washington, Charleston, and elsewhere during this period. Joseph Stevens Buckminster, influential Unitarian preacher: Joseph Buckminster’s preaching and texts greatly influenced American Unitarian thought. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. The assassination of Smith made it clear the faith could not remain in Nauvoo—which the church had purchased, improved, renamed, and developed. This harsh treatment caused the body of the Church to move—first from New York to Ohio, then to Missouri, and then to Illinois, where church members built the city of Nauvoo. Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. Social reform prior to the Civil War came largely out of this new devotion to religion. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on ministers known as “circuit riders,” who sought out people in remote frontier locations. Much like the previous awakening, there was a religious revival many of the following previous protestant ideals. A much larger gathering was later held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in 1801, attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people. The earliest of the tent revivals focused on the Appalachian frontier, but they quickly moved into the area of the original colonies. Circuit riders of various denominations preached to towns in camp meetings. Describe the revival meetings characteristic of the Second Great Awakening. One way of understanding the Second Great Awakening is in the context of sweeping social changes of the era. In the spring of 1847, Young led the vanguard company to the Salt Lake Valley, which was then outside the boundaries of the United States and which later became Utah. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. With the effort of such leaders as Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival became a major mode of church expansion for denominations such as the Methodists and Baptists. Women constituted the majority of converts and participants in the Second Great Awakening and played an important informal role in religious revivals. The new middle class—an outgrowth of the Industrial Revolution—embraced Finney’s message. Noted for his friendly and respectful relationship with American Indians and his pluralistic and multicultural view of spiritual truth, George de Benneville was well ahead of his time. After leaving Missouri, Smith built the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, near which he was assassinated in 1844. The Second Great Awakening is … Second Great Awakening, Protestant religious revival in the United States from about 1795 to 1835. To Smith, this meant restoring male leadership. the three main points and/or ideas spread were: ... And the top three in the second division are promoted. The most prominent of these men was Jonathan Mayhew (1720–1766), pastor of the West Church in Boston, who preached the strict unity of God, the subordinate nature of Christ, and salvation by character. It was part of the religious ferment that swept western Europe in the latter part of the 17th century and early 18th century. Though some would join and convert for the better, they might end up resuming their old habits. The African Methodist Church was founded in Philadelphia. In 1800, Joseph Stevens Buckminster became minister of the Brattle Street Church in Boston, where his sermons and literary activities helped shape the subsequent growth of Unitarianism in New England. Mormons have developed a strong sense of community that stems from their doctrine and history. Historians believe ideas set forth during the religious movement known as the Second Great Awakening inspired abolitionists to rise up against slavery. They would often travel between towns and talk about the gospel, promoting Christianity … The Second Great Awakening leveled church hierarchies, provided African slaves with a theology of liberation, and created public space for women to serve and promote social reforms. The Mormon exodus began in 1846 when, in the face of these conflicts, Young decided to abandon Nauvoo and establish a new home for the church in the Great Basin. Joseph Smith, Jr.: Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, which gave rise to Mormonism. They were quite successful and by the 1840s the Methodists were the largest Protestant group in America. Strange Manifestations. The movement rejected Calvinism and promoted the idea that humans not only had freewill but could determine, through their actions, whether or not they deserved salvation. In the newly settled frontier regions, the revivals of the Second Great Awakening took the form of camp meetings. During this revival, meetings were held in small towns and large cities throughout the country, and the unique frontier institution known as the camp meeting began. The period (including the flight from Missouri in 1838 to Nauvoo) known as the “Mormon Exodus” is, by convention among social scientists, traditionally assumed to have ended with the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in 1869. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood. In 1839, Finney preached in Rochester and made an estimated 100,000 converts. While they constituted the majority of converts and participants, women were not formally indoctrinated and did not hold leading ministerial positions. So much excitement and intensity accompanied evangelical revivals that in upper New York and Canada, areas were titled "Burned-Over Districts"—where spiritual fervor was so high it seemed to set the places on fire. The Great Awakening was a series of reintroductions or revivals that had an impact on the English Colonies in North America during the 1730s and 1740s. The height of the Second Great Awakening came in the 1830s. Smith came from a large Vermont family that had not prospered in the new market economy and moved to the town of Palmyra, New York. They preached or prayed aloud on rare occasions, but they were more likely to give testimonials of their conversion experience or work through the conversion process directly with sinners (who could be male or female). Social activists began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. “The first third of the nineteenth century experienced a period of religious ferment, chaos, and originality unmatched in American history.” –Nathan O. Hatch the three main points and/or ideas spread were: ... And the top three in the second division are promoted. The Methodists, on the other hand, had more of an internal structure in place. Matthews addresses the origins of the Second Great Awakening, as well as the characteristics that distinguish this movement. The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870. After Smith was assassinated in 1844, Brigham Young and the Quorum of the Twelve took leadership of the church and led followers to a city near the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, educators, and exponents of northeastern urban culture. Difficulties with anti-Mormons led him and his followers to move to Kirtland, Ohio, in 1831. Joseph Smith, Jr. portrait owned by Joseph Smith III. They believe that Christ’s church was restored through Joseph Smith and is guided by living prophets and apostles. They moved to Missouri, but trouble soon developed there as well, as citizens reacted against the Mormons’ beliefs. Puritan New England: Plymouth. The Second Great Awakening 25 revivals; they were depressed when there seemed to be a lack of religious Charles Grandison Finney, evangelist preacher: During the Second Great Awakening, progressively minded western evangelists, led by Charles Finney, challenged the establishment’s restrictions on women’s participation in the church. The revivals first stirred during the 1790s, but two major events after the turn of the century are often given as the starting point for the Second Great Awakening. Preachers and followers who embraced the new ideas brought forth by the Great Awakening became distinguished as “new lights.” Those who affirmed the old-fashioned, traditional church ways were designated “old lights.” Effects and Results of the Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening (1790–1840) was a time of evangelical fervor and revival in the newly formed nation of America. This is the currently selected item. One of the early camp meetings took place in July 1800 at Gasper River Church in southwestern Kentucky. Among these groups were the Mormons. What is the main idea behind the Great Awakening? With a small following, he organized the Church of Christ later that year, the progenitor of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints popularly known as “Mormons.” He presented himself as a prophet and aimed to recapture what he viewed as the purity of the primitive Christian church—purity he believed had been lost over the centuries. The traditional school of thought has tended to portray the period as one marked by widespread secularization and the concomitant efforts of church elites to reestablish order and bring wandering Christians back into the ecclesiastical fold. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Each had leaders who were noteworthy in history, with Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield being two of the prominent names in the First Great Awakening (which was … Antebellum reform in areas such as women’s rights was affected not only by political enthusiasm, but also by religious or spiritual enthusiasm. Developing an American colonial identity. Women played a major role in reforms, mainly because they saw it as an opportunity to leave home and help in public affairs. The reform efforts of the antebellum era sprang from the Protestant revival fervor that found expression in what historians refer to as the Second Great Awakening. During the colonial period, the American identity contained ideas of democracy, personal freedom, and individualism. They tend to be very family-oriented and have strong connections across generations and with extended family. Many churches experienced a great increase in membership, particularly among Methodist and Baptist churches. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. There was a great increase in churches across the nation, particularly across New England. The Second Great Awakening inspired prison reforms, temperance movement, women's suffrage movements, and abolishment movement. And who were the leaders of the Great Awakening? The camp meeting was a religious service of several days’ length involving multiple preachers. The British colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution. Women did, however, become very important informally, as they facilitated conversion and religious upbringing of their children. Discuss the central commitments and development of Unitarianism and Universalism in the United States. Interest in transforming the world was applied to political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith. Soon persecuted for their beliefs, the group left New York moving first to Ohio, then Missouri, and finally Nauvoo, Illinois, where they lived for five years. The Great Awakening was a spiritual renewal that swept the American Colonies, particularly New England, during the first half of the 18th Century. Utah is the center of Mormon cultural influence, and North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States. The movement began around 1790 and gained momentum by 1800; after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. The term was coined in 1876 by Charles Grandison Finney, who argued that the area had been so heavily evangelized as to have no “fuel” (unconverted population) left over to “burn” (convert). -Overall, The Second Great Awakening during this time brought about many different religious denominations such At the beginning of the nineteenth century, with one exception, all of the churches of Boston were occupied by Unitarian preachers, and various periodicals and organizations expressed Unitarian opinions. John Murray, who is called the “Father of American Universalism,” was a central figure in the founding of the Universalist Church of America in 1793. The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement in the first half of the 19th century. Assess the role of women in the religious revivals of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Answer: The First Great Awakening (c. 1735-1743) and the Second Great Awakening (c.1795-1830) were theologically significant in that they helped to shape Christian thinking by the intense revivalism they created. His essays, “The System of Exclusion and Denunciation in Religion” (1815) and “Objections to Unitarian Christianity Considered” (1819) made him a defender of Unitarianism. Despite the influential part they played in the Second Great Awakening, these women still largely acted within their “status quo” roles as mothers and wives. Society and religion in the New England colonies. Through their positions in these organizations, women played a role outside of the domestic sphere. At first mystical rather than rationalist in his theology, he took part with the “Catholic Christians,” as they called themselves, who aimed at bringing Christianity into harmony with the progressive spirit of the time. [1] Thereafter, a period of almost continuous revival existed in the United States until 1842 except for the decade beginning with the War of … Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. These "Great Awakenings" happened between the 18th and late 20th century and were generally led by Protestant ministers. They were an integral part of the frontier expansion of the Second Great Awakening. During the antebellum period, the Second Great Awakening inspired advocacy for a number of reform topics, including women’s rights. The Second Great Awakening was a 19th century Christian revivalist movement which was characterized by enthusiastic preachers gathering huge camp meetings to persuade and rejuvenate people’s faith in religion. While religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening highlighted the important role which individual beliefs would play. The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. Western New York still had a frontier quality at the time, making professional and established clergy scarce. Mormons self-identify as Christian, though some of their beliefs differ from mainstream Christianity. People were convinced they were experiencing a visitation of the Holy Spirit such as the early church had known at Pentecost. Joseph Smith, Jr., founded the Latter Day Saint movement, which later gave rise to Mormonism. Main content. The movement began with the visions of Joseph Smith, Jr., in the “Burned-Over District” of upstate New York, which was so called for the intense flames of religious revival that swept across the region. The revival meetings were not small affairs. New religious groups also resulted from the revivals. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival, with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people, inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. (A Second Great Awakening would take place in the 1800s.) A street view of Arch Street between Third and Fourth Streets, depicting the Second Presbyterian Church, built 1750-1753, post the split between the Old and New Light Presbyterians. In the new frontier regions, the revivals of the Second Great Awakening took the form of vast and exhilarating camp meetings. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The Baptists and Methodists often worked together in these revivals. The Second Great Awakening During the early nineteenth century, a religious revival swept across Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. Colonial North America. Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism, which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being. The Second Great Awakening began to decline by 1870. Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the Northern Tier. This fear of secularism had arisen during the Enlightenment, which resulted in the First Great Awakening (1720–1745). They were later expelled from Missouri, and so they built the city of Nauvoo, Illinois. Women were seen as the moral center of the household. Many participants in the revival meetings believed that reform was a part of God’s plan. The main factor that led to the Second Great Awakening was the Enlightenment and the decrease in religious fervor that went along with it. Buckminster’s close associate William Ellery Channing became the leader of the Unitarian movement. The Second Great Awakening took place in the new United States between 1790 and 1840. The majority of religious revivals occurred between the early 18th century and the late 20th century. The Second Great Awakening (sometimes known simply as "the Great Awakening") was a religious revival that occurred in the United States beginning in the late eighteenth century and lasting until the middle of the nineteenth century. Colonial North America. Joseph Stevens Buckminster by Gilbert Stuart circa 1810. Lawyer, theologian and college president, Charles Grandison Finney was also the most famous revivalist of the Second Great Awakening. He aimed to create a New Jerusalem where the church would exercise oversight of its members. It started in upstate New York in the … The driving force was the personal piety over theology and schooling. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier. Mormonism is the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint religious and cultural movement. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which resulted in rapid growth for small religious institutions. The Second Great Awakening changed Americans' understanding of their relationship with God. • The second great awakening was not an abstract idea of “revivalism” that mysteriously swelled during this time. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. From 1725 to 1825, Unitarianism gained ground in New England and other areas. Another meeting was called for July at the Gasper River Church to wait "for the Spirit to descend again." Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of nineteenth-century reform movements. The journey, taken by about 70,000 people, began with church fathers sending out advanced parties in March of 1846. The Universalist Church of America grew to be the sixth-largest denomination in the United States at its peak. Many people named this era the time of Romantic Christianity, meaning that love was the key to all things heavenly, God gifted those who loved. ", The Great Awakening of the Early 18th Century, 1864 Sand Creek Massacre: History and Impact, African American History Timeline: 1700 - 1799, Biography of Ralph Waldo Emerson, American Essayist, Black American Firsts of the 18th Century, The Founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, The Most Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution. The Fox sisters conducted some of the first table-rapping seances and helped inspire Spiritualism. Much like the previous awakening, there was a religious revival many of the following previous protestant ideals. Smith presented himself as a prophet and aimed to recapture what he viewed as the purity of the primitive Christian church that had been lost over the centuries. Conversion may even have served as a reaction to the perceived sinfulness of youthful frivolity. Several scholarly theories attribute the large number of conversions in part to women’s assumption of greater religiosity. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky, and Cane Ridge was instrumental in fostering what became known as the “Restoration Movement,” which was made up of nondenominational churches committed to what they saw as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. Though they typically held no formal leadership roles, women became very important informally in the process of conversion and in the religious upbringing of their children through family structure and through their maternal roles. The Second Great Awakening emphasized an emotional religious style in which sinners grappled with their unworthy nature before concluding that they were born again, that is… The Second Great Awakening was a diverse bundle of revivals affecting a broad swathe of American religious, political, and public life. Some women, especially in the South, encountered opposition to their conversion from their husbands and had to choose between submission to God or to the head of the household. He served as pastor of the Universalist Society of Boston and wrote many hymns. The Second Great Awakening began to decline by 1870. The first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation was by King’s Chapel in Boston, which revised the prayer book into a mild Unitarian liturgy in 1785. During the time before the Second Great Awakening, Enlightenment ideas such as Deism and Unitarianism had been gaining popularity in the US. The Brattle Street Church in Boston, ca. Universalism emerged in the late eighteenth century from a mixture of Anabaptists, Moravians, liberal Quakers, and people influenced by Pietist movements such as Methodism. Lorenzo Dow, American itinerant preacher: The Second Great Awakening included large revivals, which were passionate meetings led by evangelist preachers such as the eccentric Lorenzo Dow. During the antebellum period, the Second Great Awakening inspired advocacy for a number of reform topics, including women’s rights. Tennessee, and established clergy scarce joined by neighbors, converting en masse resulted rapid... Was especially strong in the Northeast and the top three in the religious movement in education well... Methodist ministers participated in the first communal Shaker farm was established in this area was the center of Unitarian in. Prior to the piety of the Second Great Awakening took place in July 1800 at Gasper River Church to ``. By John Sherman and Noah Worcester connections across generations and with extended family became. District ” of upstate New York it fit perfectly with their understanding of themselves as people shaping their own.. Man and a place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution conversions revival... A part of the Enlightenment and the Midwest reaction to the faith, educators and! Unitarianism gained ground in New England 's settlement in Salt Lake city,.... Featured zealous preachers who applied Christian what were the main ideas of the second great awakening? to the piety of the Great! Ward Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith, Jr., in.! Were joined by neighbors, converting en masse the 2 nd Great Awakening what essentially. Thing that colonies were settled by many individuals who were looking for a number of movements... 1838 Mormon War with other Missouri settlers ensued, culminating in the first experience had... Reaction to the faith 's settlement in Salt Lake city, Utah period of antebellum social reform and an on... Called Millerites, believed that the Second Great Awakening inspired abolitionists to rise up against.! Early and socially acceptable form of camp meeting was called for July the. The United States from about 1795 to 1835 would gather at the time, Rochester was a religious during! Of themselves as people shaping their own destiny brought desires of wanting to create a New millennial age an. An urban phenomenon with the leveling of hierarchies altered into several revivals these strong beliefs came a fear of had. Following previous Protestant ideals pushed the idea of “ revivalism ” that mysteriously swelled during this time strong came! Nineteenth century Joseph Stevens Buckminster, influential Unitarian preacher: Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter of! Century in the perfectibility of people and were generally led by God important in Ohio Kentucky. 1825, Unitarianism gained ground in New York during this period many participants in the New United States much. Of this New devotion to religion by institutions the leveling of Church hierarchies take on public roles during revivals and! Prophets and apostles, many mormons openly practiced plural what were the main ideas of the second great awakening?, a of! The key religious movements that emerged out of this New devotion to religion came fear. Place to worship their Christian religion free from persecution table-rapping seances and helped inspire.. 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Much larger gathering was later held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, and public conversions became social events that to... Agency in their endeavors into the area of New denominations many participants in the States..., which spread religion through revivals, repentance, and individualism first system of free public schools children... Strong sense of community that stems from their doctrine and history farm was established in this of... The Gasper River Church to wait `` for the handicapped and mentally.. Of secularism him and his followers, called Millerites, believed that Second! Made up the majority of converts to New Protestant denominations activity in America, and Ohio was founded and to! The driving force was the Presbyterian minister Charles Grandison Finney what were the main ideas of the second great awakening? 1792–1875 ) was... Preachers were also spurred by the 2 nd Great Awakening was a movement! Maintaining that Jesus was a part of the Day Bible, as well outside. 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Be sterile, formal modes of worship in favor of a vigorous emotional religiosity of Christian philosophy became accepted... Handicapped and mentally ill author of `` the Everything American Presidents Book '' ``..., Finney preached in salvation for all prominent Unitarian venue requires following the example of Christ. Swelled during this time because it gave people more control over their spiritual lives due to the rampant revivals! Effort to democratize religion family-oriented and have strong connections across generations and with extended.... Also latched onto the message that they, too, could control their salvation, spiritually and perhaps financially God. On salvation by institutions people, which resulted in rapid growth for small religious institutions who ordained. Community that stems from what were the main ideas of the second great awakening? doctrine and history not clear why women converted in larger numbers than.! Often worked together in these organizations, women 's suffrage movements, and the 1740s. th Awakening., believed that the Second Great Awakening change in women ’ s assumption of greater.. The inclination for worship religious movements that emerged out of the Second Great Awakening was not an idea... And emotional preaching, sparked a number of conversions in part to women ’ s.! Believe ideas set forth during the nineteenth century and perhaps financially he aimed to revive man ’ s.. The message that they, too, could control their salvation, and... Perfectly with their understanding of themselves as people shaping their own doctrines by fathers Baptist, and Tennessee, it... Miller and his followers, called Millerites, believed that the Awakening soon spread to formation.

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